pyppeteer的使用

  • Puppeteer 是 Google 基于 Node.js 开发的一个工具,有了它我们可以通过 JavaScript 来控制 Chrome 浏览器的一些操作,当然也可以用作网络爬虫上,其 API 极其完善,功能非常强大。 而 Pyppeteer 又是什么呢?它实际上是 Puppeteer 的 Python 版本的实现,但他不是 Google 开发的,是一位来自于日本的工程师依据 Puppeteer 的一些功能开发出来的非官方版本。

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GitHub 地址: https://github.com/miyakogi/pyppeteer

官方文档: https://miyakogi.github.io/pyppeteer/reference.html


基础用法

  • 属于第三方模块进行安装. pip install pyppeteer
import asyncio
from pyppeteer import launch


async def main():
    # headless参数设为False,则变成有头模式
    # Pyppeteer支持字典和关键字传参,Puppeteer只支持字典传参
    
    # 指定引擎路径
    # exepath = r'C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Local\pyppeteer\pyppeteer\local-chromium\575458\chrome-win32/chrome.exe'
    # browser = await launch({'executablePath': exepath, 'headless': False, 'slowMo': 30})
    
    browser = await launch(
        # headless=False,
        {'headless': False}
    )

    page = await browser.newPage()

    # 设置页面视图大小
    await page.setViewport(viewport={'width': 1280, 'height': 800})

    # 是否启用JS,enabled设为False,则无渲染效果
    await page.setJavaScriptEnabled(enabled=True)
	# 超时间见 1000 毫秒
    res = await page.goto('https://www.toutiao.com/', options={'timeout': 1000})
    resp_headers = res.headers  # 响应头
    resp_status = res.status  # 响应状态
    
    # 等待
    await asyncio.sleep(2)
    # 第二种方法,在while循环里强行查询某元素进行等待
    while not await page.querySelector('.t'):
        pass
    # 滚动到页面底部
    await page.evaluate('window.scrollBy(0, document.body.scrollHeight)')

    await asyncio.sleep(2)
    # 截图 保存图片
    await page.screenshot({'path': 'toutiao.png'})

    # 打印页面cookies
    print(await page.cookies())

    """  打印页面文本 """
    # 获取所有 html 内容
    print(await page.content())

    # 在网页上执行js 脚本
    dimensions = await page.evaluate(pageFunction='''() => {
            return {
                width: document.documentElement.clientWidth,  // 页面宽度
                height: document.documentElement.clientHeight,  // 页面高度
                deviceScaleFactor: window.devicePixelRatio,  // 像素比 1.0000000149011612
            }
        }''', force_expr=False)  # force_expr=False  执行的是函数
    print(dimensions)

    #  只获取文本  执行 js 脚本  force_expr  为 True 则执行的是表达式
    content = await page.evaluate(pageFunction='document.body.textContent', force_expr=True)
    print(content)

    # 打印当前页标题
    print(await page.title())

    # 抓取新闻内容  可以使用 xpath 表达式
    """
    # Pyppeteer 三种解析方式
    Page.querySelector()  # 选择器
    Page.querySelectorAll()
    Page.xpath()  # xpath  表达式
    # 简写方式为:
    Page.J(), Page.JJ(), and Page.Jx()
    """
    element = await page.querySelector(".feed-infinite-wrapper > ul>li")  # 纸抓取一个
    print(element)
    # 获取所有文本内容  执行 js
    content = await page.evaluate('(element) => element.textContent', element)
    print(content)

    # elements = await page.xpath('//div[@class="title-box"]/a')
    elements = await page.querySelectorAll(".title-box a")
    for item in elements:
        print(await item.getProperty('textContent'))
        # <pyppeteer.execution_context.JSHandle object at 0x000002220E7FE518>

        # 获取文本
        title_str = await (await item.getProperty('textContent')).jsonValue()

        # 获取链接
        title_link = await (await item.getProperty('href')).jsonValue()
        print(title_str)
        print(title_link)

    # 关闭浏览器
    await browser.close()


asyncio.get_event_loop().run_until_complete(main())
import asyncio
import pyppeteer
from collections import namedtuple

Response = namedtuple("rs", "title url html cookies headers history status")


async def get_html(url):
    browser = await pyppeteer.launch(headless=True, args=['--no-sandbox'])
    page = await  browser.newPage()
    res = await page.goto(url, options={'timeout': 3000})
    data = await page.content()
    title = await page.title()
    resp_cookies = await page.cookies()  # cookie
    resp_headers = res.headers  # 响应头
    resp_status = res.status  # 响应状态
    print(data)
    print(title)
    print(resp_headers)
    print(resp_status)
    return title


if __name__ == '__main__':
    url_list = ["https://www.toutiao.com/",
                "http://jandan.net/ooxx/page-8#comments",
                "https://www.12306.cn/index/"
               ]
    task = [get_html(url) for url in url_list]

    loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
    results = loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*task))
    for res in results:
        print(res)

headers = {'date': 'Sun, 28 Apr 2019 06:50:20 GMT',
           'server': 'Cmcc',
           'x-frame-options': 'SAMEORIGIN\nSAMEORIGIN',
           'last-modified': 'Fri, 26 Apr 2019 09:58:09 GMT',
           'accept-ranges': 'bytes',
           'cache-control': 'max-age=43200',
           'expires': 'Sun, 28 Apr 2019 18:50:20 GMT',
           'vary': 'Accept-Encoding,User-Agent',
           'content-encoding': 'gzip',
           'content-length': '19823',
           'content-type': 'text/html',
           'connection': 'Keep-alive',
           'via': '1.1 ID-0314217270751344 uproxy-17'}

模拟输入

 # 模拟输入 账号密码  {'delay': rand_int()} 为输入时间
    await page.type('#TPL_username_1', "sadfasdfasdf")
    await page.type('#TPL_password_1', "123456789", )
    
    await page.waitFor(1000)
    await page.click("#J_SubmitStatic")

使用 tkinter 获取页面高度 宽度

def screen_size():
    """使用tkinter获取屏幕大小"""
    import tkinter
    tk = tkinter.Tk()
    width = tk.winfo_screenwidth()
    height = tk.winfo_screenheight()
    tk.quit()
    return width, height

爬取京东商城

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from pyppeteer import launch
import asyncio


def screen_size():
    """使用tkinter获取屏幕大小"""
    import tkinter
    tk = tkinter.Tk()
    width = tk.winfo_screenwidth()
    height = tk.winfo_screenheight()
    tk.quit()
    return width, height


async def main(url):
    # browser = await launch({'headless': False, 'args': ['--no-sandbox'], })
    browser = await launch({'args': ['--no-sandbox'], })
    page = await browser.newPage()
    width, height = screen_size()
    await page.setViewport(viewport={"width": width, "height": height})
    await page.setJavaScriptEnabled(enabled=True)
    await page.setUserAgent(
        'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/58.0.3029.110 Safari/537.36 Edge/16.16299')
    await page.goto(url)

    # await asyncio.sleep(2)

    await page.evaluate('window.scrollBy(0, document.body.scrollHeight)')

    await asyncio.sleep(1)

    # content = await page.content()
    li_list = await page.xpath('//*[@id="J_goodsList"]/ul/li')

    # print(li_list)
    item_list = []
    for li in li_list:
        a = await li.xpath('.//div[@class="p-img"]/a')
        detail_url = await (await a[0].getProperty("href")).jsonValue()
        promo_words = await (await a[0].getProperty("title")).jsonValue()
        a_ = await li.xpath('.//div[@class="p-commit"]/strong/a')
        p_commit = await (await a_[0].getProperty("textContent")).jsonValue()
        i = await li.xpath('./div/div[3]/strong/i')
        price = await (await i[0].getProperty("textContent")).jsonValue()
        em = await li.xpath('./div/div[4]/a/em')
        title = await (await em[0].getProperty("textContent")).jsonValue()
        item = {
            "title": title,
            "detail_url": detail_url,
            "promo_words": promo_words,
            'p_commit': p_commit,
            'price': price
        }
        item_list.append(item)
        # print(item)
        # break
    # print(content)

    await page_close(browser)
    return item_list


async def page_close(browser):
    for _page in await browser.pages():
        await _page.close()
    await browser.close()


msg = "手机"
url = "https://search.jd.com/Search?keyword={}&enc=utf-8&qrst=1&rt=1&stop=1&vt=2&wq={}&cid2=653&cid3=655&page={}"

task_list = []
for i in range(1, 6):
    page = i * 2 - 1
    url = url.format(msg, msg, page)
    task_list.append(main(url))

loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
results = loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*task_list))
# print(results, len(results))
for i in results:
    print(i, len(i))

# soup = BeautifulSoup(content, 'lxml')
# div = soup.find('div', id='J_goodsList')
# for i, li in enumerate(div.find_all('li', class_='gl-item')):
#     if li.select('.p-img a'):
#         print(li.select('.p-img a')[0]['href'], i)
#         print(li.select('.p-price i')[0].get_text(), i)
#         print(li.select('.p-name em')[0].text, i)
#     else:
#         print("#" * 200)
#         print(li)

爬取淘宝网

  • taobao.py
  • import asyncio
    import time
    from pyppeteer.launcher import launch
    from alifunc import mouse_slide, input_time_random
    from exe_js import js1, js3, js4, js5
    
    
    def screen_size():
        """使用tkinter获取屏幕大小"""
        import tkinter
        tk = tkinter.Tk()
        width = tk.winfo_screenwidth()
        height = tk.winfo_screenheight()
        tk.quit()
        return width, height
    
    
    async def main(username, pwd, url):
        browser = await launch({'headless': False, 'args': ['--no-sandbox'], }, userDataDir='./userdata',
                               args=['--window-size=1366,768'])
        page = await browser.newPage()
        width, height = screen_size()
        await page.setViewport(viewport={"width": width, "height": height})
        await page.setUserAgent(
            'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/58.0.3029.110 Safari/537.36 Edge/16.16299')
    
        await page.goto(url)
        await page.evaluate(js1)
        await page.evaluate(js3)
        await page.evaluate(js4)
        await page.evaluate(js5)
    
        pwd_login = await page.querySelector('.J_Quick2Static')
        # print(await (await pwd_login.getProperty('textContent')).jsonValue())
        await pwd_login.click()
    
        await page.type('#TPL_username_1', username, {'delay': input_time_random() - 50})
        await page.type('#TPL_password_1', pwd, {'delay': input_time_random()})
    
        await page.screenshot({'path': './headless-test-result.png'})
        time.sleep(2)
    
        slider = await page.Jeval('#nocaptcha', 'node => node.style')  # 是否有滑块
    
        if slider:
            print('出现滑块情况判定')
            await page.screenshot({'path': './headless-login-slide.png'})
            flag = await mouse_slide(page=page)
            if flag:
                print(page.url)
                await page.keyboard.press('Enter')
    
                await get_cookie(page)
        else:
            await page.keyboard.press('Enter')
            await page.waitFor(20)
            await page.waitForNavigation()
            try:
                global error
                error = await page.Jeval('.error', 'node => node.textContent')
            except Exception as e:
                error = None
                print(e, "错啦")
            finally:
                if error:
                    print('确保账户安全重新入输入')
                else:
                    print(page.url)
                    # 可继续网页跳转 已经携带 cookie
                    # await get_search(page)
                    await get_cookie(page)
        await page_close(browser)
    
    
    async def page_close(browser):
        for _page in await browser.pages():
            await _page.close()
        await browser.close()
    
    
    async def get_search(page):
        # https://s.taobao.com/search?q={查询的条件}&p4ppushleft=1%2C48&s={每页 44 条 第一页 0 第二页 44}&sort=sale-desc
        await page.goto("https://s.taobao.com/search?q=气球")
    
        await asyncio.sleep(5)
        # print(await page.content())
    
    
    # 获取登录后cookie  
    async def get_cookie(page):
        res = await page.content()
        cookies_list = await page.cookies()
        cookies = ''
        for cookie in cookies_list:
            str_cookie = '{0}={1};'
            str_cookie = str_cookie.format(cookie.get('name'), cookie.get('value'))
            cookies += str_cookie
        print(cookies)
        # 将cookie 放入 cookie 池 以便多次请求 封账号 利用cookie 对搜索内容进行爬取
        
        return cookies
    
    
    if __name__ == '__main__':
        username = 'username'
        pwd = 'password'
        url = "https://login.taobao.com/member/login.jhtml?spm=a21bo.2017.754894437.1.5af911d9qqVAb1&f=top&redirectURL=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.taobao.com%2F"
    
        loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
        loop.run_until_complete(main(username, pwd, url))
    

  • exe_js.py
  • js1 = '''() =>{
               Object.defineProperties(navigator,{
                 webdriver:{
                   get: () => false
                 }
               })
            }'''
    
    js2 = '''() => {
            alert (
                window.navigator.webdriver
            )
        }'''
    
    js3 = '''() => {
            window.navigator.chrome = {
        runtime: {},
        // etc.
      };
        }'''
    
    js4 = '''() =>{
    Object.defineProperty(navigator, 'languages', {
          get: () => ['en-US', 'en']
        });
            }'''
    
    js5 = '''() =>{
    Object.defineProperty(navigator, 'plugins', {
        get: () => [1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6],
      });
            }'''
    
  • alifunc.py
  • from retrying import retry  # 错误自动重试
    import time, asyncio, random
    
    
    def retry_if_result_none(result):
        return result is None
    
    
    @retry(retry_on_result=retry_if_result_none, )
    async def mouse_slide(page=None):
        await asyncio.sleep(3)
        try:
            await page.hover('#nc_1_n1z')
            await page.mouse.down()
            await page.mouse.move(2000, 0, {'delay': random.randint(1000, 2000)})
            await page.mouse.up()
    
        except Exception as e:
            print(e, '     :slide login False')
            return None
        else:
            await asyncio.sleep(3)
            slider_again = await page.Jeval('.nc-lang-cnt', 'node => node.textContent')
            if slider_again != '验证通过':
                return None
            else:
                await page.screenshot({'path': './headless-slide-result.png'})
                print('验证通过')
                return 1
    
    
    def input_time_random():
        return random.randint(100, 151)

利用获取到的cookie 爬取搜索内容

import json
import requests
import re

# 设置 cookie 池 随机发送请求 通过 pyppeteer 获取 cookie
cookie = '_tb_token_=edd7e354dee53;t=fed8f4ca1946ca1e73223cfae04bc589;sg=20f;cna=2uJSFdQGmDMCAbfFWXWAC4Jv;cookie2=1db6cd63ad358170ea13319f7a862c33;_l_g_=Ug%3D%3D;v=0;unb=3150916610;skt=49cbfd5e01d1b550;cookie1=BxVRmD3sh19TaAU6lH88bHw5oq%2BgcAGcRe229Hj5DTA%3D;csg=cf45a9e2;uc3=vt3=F8dByEazRMnQZDe%2F9qI%3D&id2=UNGTqfZ61Z3rsA%3D%3D&nk2=oicxO%2BHX4Pg%3D&lg2=U%2BGCWk%2F75gdr5Q%3D%3D;existShop=MTU1Njg3MDM3MA%3D%3D;tracknick=%5Cu7433150322;lgc=%5Cu7433150322;_cc_=V32FPkk%2Fhw%3D%3D;mt=ci=86_1;dnk=%5Cu7433150322;_nk_=%5Cu7433150322;cookie17=UNGTqfZ61Z3rsA%3D%3D;tg=0;enc=tThHs6Sn3BAl8v1fu3J4tMpgzA1n%2BLzxjib0vDAtGsXJCb4hqQZ7Z9fHIzsN0WghdcKEsoeKz6mBwPUpyzLOZw%3D%3D;JSESSIONID=B3F383B3467EC60F8CA425935232D395;l=bBMspAhrveV5732DBOCanurza77OSIRYYuPzaNbMi_5pm6T_G4QOlC03xF96VjfRswYBqh6Mygv9-etuZ;hng=CN%7Czh-CN%7CCNY%7C156;isg=BLi41Q8PENDal3xUVsA-aPbfiWaKiRzB6vcTu_IpBPOmDVj3mjHsO86vxUQYW9SD;uc1=cookie16=W5iHLLyFPlMGbLDwA%2BdvAGZqLg%3D%3D&cookie21=W5iHLLyFeYZ1WM9hVnmS&cookie15=UIHiLt3xD8xYTw%3D%3D&existShop=false&pas=0&cookie14=UoTZ4ttqLhxJww%3D%3D&tag=8&lng=zh_CN;thw=cn;x=e%3D1%26p%3D*%26s%3D0%26c%3D0%26f%3D0%26g%3D0%26t%3D0;swfstore=34617;'

headers = {
    'cookie': cookie,
    "user-agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/73.0.3683.103 Safari/537.36"
}

rep = requests.get('https://s.taobao.com/search?q=手机&p4ppushleft=1%2C48&s=0&sort=sale-desc ', headers=headers)
rep.encoding = 'utf-8'
res = rep.text
print(res)

r = re.compile(r'g_page_config = (.*?)g_srp_loadCss', re.S)
res = r.findall(res)

data = res[0].strip().rstrip(';')
dic_data = json.loads(data)
auctions = dic_data.get('mods')['itemlist']['data']['auctions']

# print(auctions,len(auctions))
for item in auctions[1:]:
    print(item)
    break

针对iframe 的操作

  • page.frames 获取所有的 iframe 列表 需要判断操作的是哪一个 iframe 跟操作 page 一样操作
  • from pyppeteer import launch
    import asyncio
    
    
    async def main(url):
        w = await launch({'headless': False, 'args': ['--no-sandbox'], })
    
        page = await w.newPage()
        await page.setViewport({"width": 1366, 'height': 800})
        await page.goto(url)
        try:
            await asyncio.sleep(1)
    
            frame = page.frames
            print(frame)  # 需要找到是哪一个 frame
            title = await frame[1].title()
            print(title)
            await asyncio.sleep(1)
            login = await frame[1].querySelector('#switcher_plogin')
            print(login)
            await login.click()
    
            await asyncio.sleep(20)
        except Exception as e:
            print(e, "EEEEEEEEE")
    
        for _page in await w.pages():
            await _page.close()
        await w.close()
    
    
    asyncio.get_event_loop().run_until_complete(main("https://i.qq.com/?rd=1"))
    # asyncio.get_event_loop().run_until_complete(main("https://www.gushici.com/"))
    

Python 2020-10-07 17:24:47 通过 网页 浏览(223)

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